This wiki page describes the policies and recommendations that the CIP kernel maintainers are following in order to maintain the CIP kernel beyond the current periods established by the enterprise industry, in order to meet Industrial Grade requirements.
Nobuhiro Iwamatsu, from Toshiba Corporation. and Pavel Machek, from DENX Software Engineering GmbH are the current CIP kernel maintainer. More developers will join in future. And when we release the CIP kernel, we will sign it with GnuPG by the maintainers. Each public key can be obtained from the following.
New major versions of commercial Linux distributions are released at 3-4 year intervals and maintained over 10-13 years, so that typically only 3-4 versions need to be supported at one time. Given that CIP's support period is meant to be even longer, it won’t be sustainable to extend every LTS branch, but only to take on a new branch every 2-4 years.
The longer the intervals between new SLTS branches, the greater need there will be for CIP or individual members to backport new hardware support (which carries its own risks). This trade-off is perhaps the most difficult issue to decide.
CIP will measure the effort involved in maintaining the kernel branch we already labelled as SLTS (4.4) and study the technical implications of this work during 2018 in order to define when the next SLTS branch should be started.
The use cases CIP project is targeting have a life cycle of between 25 and 50 years. In theory, this is the time in which products shipped with the CIP kernel will be under maintenance. However, identifying and backporting relevant fixes becomes increasingly difficult as upstream kernel development diverges further from a stable branch. Any given SLTS branch is unlikely to be maintainable for more than 10-20 years.
The Linux kernel 4.4 was released on January 10th 2016. It was declared LTS (Long Term Support) by the stable team which means Greg Kroah-Hartman was supposed to maintain it for two years (Feb 2018) following the kernel LTS process. In September 2017 it was announced that the 4.4 LTS branch will be maintained during 6 years. Another stable maintainer could extend LTS maintenance for some time beyond that. After that period, CIP will maintain it.
The Linux kernel 4.19 was released on October 22nd, 2018.
The policy for which changes to accept is based on stable-kernel-rules.rst. For reference, these are the rules with numbering added:
CONFIG_BROKEN), an oops, a hang, data corruption, a real security issue, or some “oh, that's not good” issue. In short, something critical.
In practice, exceptions are sometimes made to rules 2, 3, 8 and 9, and we will likewise treat those as should rather than must rules.
After the end of LTS at kernel.org, the fixes made to a SLTS branch will be more restricted:
Unlike an LTS branch, an SLTS branch may include larger changes to support new hardware, to bridge the gap between SLTS branches. However, this should only be done on the newest SLTS branch.
CIP will release sources, not binaries, except for the CIP platforms once we start to build a more complete platform. The SLTS kernel maintainer will push a signed tag to the kernel git repository for each release.
Once we have automated testing in place, a release candidate must be tested on all the platforms that are covered, with no regressions, before it is tagged as a release.
As we will be backporting fixes from mainline, which may change in-kernel APIs, we will not guarantee API or ABI stability within an SLTS branch. It is the responsibility of members to update any out-of-tree components they use in case they are affected by such a change. However, incompatible changes to user-space APIs or ABIs will not be acceptable.
CIP has released new CIP minor kernel version. This depends on the kernel version and flavor. linux-4.4.y is scheduled to be released once a month, linux-4.19.y is scheduled to be released twice a month, and the RT kernel is scheduled to be released once every two months. You can find the latest CIP kernel version in git.kernel.org. Each release will be announced in the cip-dev mailing list and occasionally on the new section of the CIP project website.
CIP maintainers will maintain and respond to bug reports from CIP members and their developers, but not system administrators or end users in general, about upstream patches. Bugs should be reported upstream.
The embedded systems that CIP will be used in will also often require out-of-tree drivers and will sometimes include other changes of unknown quality to their kernel. These modifications are in general unsupported. If a bug is found in such a modified kernel, Members will first demonstrate that it exists in the CIP source release in order for the CIP maintainers to act on it.
Kernel configuration files provided by Members will be used as a reference to limit the maintenance scope. Here is a list of recommendations related to kernel configuration for long-term support:
CIP works towards reducing the window of vulnerability to zero. To achieve this goal, CIP will collaborate with the wider kernel community in initiatives like the Kernel Self Protection Project.
Although this goal may be achievable for CIP, its members may take much longer to release and deploy binary updates, maybe due to valid concerns about the risk of regression or limited opportunities to deploy updates. In the worst case, they may use CIP as an advertising/compliance point - please don't do that!
These recommendations has been written by Ben hutchings.
If you are doing this after a stable release, all the patches will be in the git history of the branch.
If you want to do this during the review period before release, you should be able to receive the patches through the email@example.com list. This is a high-traffic list, so you may want to filter by subject. However, at the time of writing, Greg's script that sends patches out for review has a bug that causes patches with non-ASCII characters to be dropped. Greg and most other stable maintainers also publish pending patches in a git repository, either as a quilt patch series or as a rebased git branch.
Pending patches for stable can be found at:
Does the patch touch code that's maintained in the CIP branch? (This should be scripted. If not, ignore it and move on.)
Does the commit message explain why the change is important, i.e. does the explanation seem to fit the criteria for stable? If not, maybe this doesn't belong in the stable branch. But do consider:
Look for a
Fixes: tag in the commit message, identifying which commit introduced (or only partly fixed) the bug that's being fixed:
git describe --contains --match 'v*' hash
git log --pretty=oneline --grep=hash vversion..stable/linux-version.y
git-check-in-stable script from Debian kernel/kernel-team.git provides a shortcut (and slightly nicer output format) for the second command.
Patches only have 3 lines of context around the lines being changed, but in some cases you need to consider the whole of each function (or other definition) being changed. So you will often need to look at the files being patched, not just the patches.
returnstatement in the stable branch, compared to the upstream version.
breakstatement, again check for leaks.
If you find a regression that is specific to the stable branch, it should be fixed by revising or rejecting the patch for the stable branch, or (if it has already been applied and released) by adding another stable-specific fix.
If you find a regression that's also present upstream, it should be fixed upstream first. In fact, that might already have happened: